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Oral health and Hygiene for your child


Good oral hygiene plays a major role on the overall health of the child. Poor oral hygiene leads to a higher risk of dental infections, cavities which might in turn lead to difficulty in eating food and chewing certain types of foods and ultimately indigestion. This is in addition to a possible issue with the speech, lower self-esteem of the child, misalignment of the permanent teeth etc. to name a few. 

A child’s tooth is less mineralised compared to that of an adult and is hence more susceptible to dental cavitation. This combined with the ill effects of a sugary diet and poor oral habits can significantly increase the risk of dental caries in the permanent teeth. Habits such as thumb sucking, mouth breathing or tongue thrusting can further increase the risk of having misaligned permanent teeth.

Here are some dental facts and advice based on the age of the child:

(0-6) years

Refer previous blog

 to read more on this.

(6-16) years


All permanent teeth excluding the wisdom teeth will be erupted by this time.


Children should be encouraged to brush twice daily using a fluoridated tooth paste, using circular movements of the brush.

Flossing between teeth should be made a habit.

Newly erupted permanent teeth commonly have very deep ‘pits’ and ‘fissures’ and hence filling these with a ‘Sealant’ by the dentist might be essential to avoid dental caries at a later stage.


If your child is having misaligned teeth, the best age to consult a dentist would be around 7 years. Around this age, many issues involving the jaws or jaw orientation can be corrected without surgery. ‘Functional Appliance’ is the name given to these correctional devices.  


(17-21) years:


The 4 (Upper 2+ Lower 2) wisdom tooth usually erupts between 7-21 years


Wisdom teeth rarely cause too much discomfort when it has enough space to erupt.

Impacted wisdom teeth result from a lack of space in the jaw to erupt and hence leads to extreme discomfort and pain depending on the severity.

Visit a dentist if you experience extreme pain. Your dentist would suggest an X-Ray to determine the position of your tooth in the jaw and depending on the space available and the chances of it erupting, a minor surgical extraction of the wisdom tooth might be suggested.

Failure to remove an impacted wisdom tooth may lead to tumours such as ‘Ameloblastoma’ later in life. Consult your dentist frequently


curie health Mar 19 '20 · Comments: 1 · Tags: care, children, dental, dentist, health, oralhealth
Grace Hudditon

Nursing has emerged in numerous ways over a succession of years. For example, Florence Nightingale Foundation provides healthcare to the entire family and not necessarily the patient alone. Family-centered care has been enhanced as an optimal viewpoint for families and children in their relations with health professionals. Therefore, family-centered care is a model of healthcare that seeks to engage families to look after their children through a supportive and respectful approach. In case of Omid’s story, the power of family-centered care highlights the negative and positive aspects of the healthcare experienced by the family, alongside with the family nursing models and the constructs of family-centered care. In addition, a multisite survey was conducted to examine differences in practices and perceptions of healthcare professionals of family-centered care and factors that affect those practices and perceptions. Therefore, through analysis and comparison of models and theories of what is presently established by today’s healthcare providers and nurses, there is an idealization of a better outcome for Omid’s family. The paper intends to provide an analysis concerning the concept of family-centered care as depicted in Omid's story and perceptions and practices of the health professionals in family-centered care.

In Omid’s case study, his mother regards her encounters of finding care for her son with special needs from healthcare providers as positive and empowering versus degrading and negative. The positive encounters commenced from the initial moment Omid was born prematurely as she met supportive and helpful healthcare providers who treated her with top-notched respect and gave her much-needed confidence to advocate for Omid's care during times of difficulty. Omid’s mother admits that not all people are treated with such care but that can make a difference between an early and late intervention. Current situation is ideal, where the family-centered nursing care leads to a positive and empowering encounter that Omid’s family can rely upon when addressing future challenges. The negative experience occurred later when Omid’s mother was seeking for medical referral regarding another undiagnosed condition and she felt challenged on her parental observations and intuition that made the whole family feel judged and degraded. However, Omid’s mother seems to be courageous and strong-willed in her commitment to finding medical solutions. For those people who are perhaps inexperienced and uneducated, life-long impacts of positive and negative healthcare encounter can hamper family’s progress, as well as cause feelings of hopelessness.

Family-centered nursing care is regarded as a philosophy of care that provides for involvement of family knowledge and convictions towards constant care-giving to children, as children are affected by the people they have relationships with and who try to assist them in order to access higher quality care. Therefore, family-centered care provides a framework that guides healthcare professionals toward taking their responsibility of providing care for children and infants such as Omid. It is done in a manner that promotes and supports physical health, psychological and emotional development that occurs in the family context. According to the case study, the perspectives of health professionals are examined based on the family-centered relationship of collaboration and respect between health professionals and families. For example, when Omid is hospitalized for medical diagnosis his mother describes the traits of the staff nurses whom she had developed a relationship with. She also tells about decision making and care-giving processes that were shared between Omid’s mother and healthcare professionals. Evidently, Omid’s mother had a positive and empowering experience with the healthcare professionals.

Most importantly, the relationship between Omid’s mother and the healthcare professionals was favored by factors that included the manner in which the healthcare professionals approached staffing levels and nursing practice, as well as the quality of working relations between nurses and physicians. It is also evident from Omid's case study that families value positive associations with healthcare providers and their involvement in the children’s healthcare. Just like in our case, infant mothers actively seek for collaborative relationship with their children’s health professionals. It was the hardest situation for Omid’s mother as she was required to increase her authority in the presence of differentiated health professionals in that hospital. It implies that healthcare providers regulate the healthcare provision to infants and the relationship between care providers and mothers. Omid’s mother recounted barriers in her efforts of developing positive relationship with health providers. The barriers noted include inadequate staffing that restricted sharing of information and communication, the opportunity of accessing many caregivers, a fact that limited Omid’s mother ability to establish rapport with healthcare providers and instilled fear that her actions would harmfully affect the quality of the healthcare her son would receive. Therefore, her encounter this time was rather negative and much degrading.

The value of caregivers is based on the elements of family-centered care and the degree to which health care providers perceive the concepts of family-centered care. Therefore, the value of caregivers can be conceptualized in three items which are the collaboration, respect and support. The items can be ranked in the order of importance as: treating parents with respect, knowing whom to seek for assistance after discharging (collaboration) and believing that healthcare providers are familiar with patient’s care (support). Therefore, the item of family-centered care that is ranked lowest in terms of occurrence and importance is the willingness of staffs to understand religious or cultural beliefs (respect). In both cases, Omid’s story and multisite survey, the perceptions of family-centered care is differentially based upon race. In these cases, families felt that they were not respected and believed that they were treated that way just because of their cultural background.

Equally important, Omid’s case study involves early medical interventions that attempted to implement certain aspects of family-centered care. The interventions concentrated on the results of family participation in care. Therefore, family members can be engaged into healthcare of their premature infant by providing family-centered supportive care. In multisite survey, behavioral stress was appreciably low in the case of early intervention through family-centered care. In addition, the parents who were with their hospitalized infants indicated that they benefited from parent support programs and were encouraged by greater parent involvement in infant care, as well as by advancement of communication with healthcare professionals.

Health professional’s perspectives are based on several approaches. The health professionals were found to be characterized by reservations about provision of family-centered care. One of the approaches includes studying nurses’ experiences while transitioning to family-centered model that provides developmentally supportive healthcare from a conventional model of providing nursing care. Although the nurses gave positive feedback to enhancing a conscious relationship between parents and their infants, they expressed negative feelings of losing power and control, as well as feelings of potential intimidation by the parents. Therefore, there were difficulties in the delivery of family-centered care as reflected by the hospital-based nurses. Additionally, nurses acknowledge the fact that family members should be engaged in good care of their hospitalized child, but they found that it was not possible to implement it practically due to the conflicting beliefs about their responsibility as nurses. Some of the roles of nurses include: having legal responsibility of caring for hospitalized children, nurses are trained as experts and nurses assess families’ ability before engaging them into care of the children. Moreover, healthcare providers are reluctant in proving care based on the family-centered care framework, especially while making important decisions regarding family participation during invasive procedures, more so in the intensive care unit. The decision about family participation is made by the health professionals and is based upon the person’s goal of performing a procedure with optimum efficiency and reduced disruption.

The variation in attitudes and perceptions towards family involvement in care is supported in a study consisting of healthcare providers such as nurses, respiratory therapists, physicians and nursing assistance. Most of the participants in the study were nurses who comprised of fifty-one percent. The study indicated no significant differences in attitudes and perceptions between physicians and nurses. Although the participants valued the benefits of family-centered care, such as feeding, there was a case of reduced support in permitting families visit the hospital whenever they like. Besides, families were not allowed to do things usually done by the healthcare providers, such as giving oral medications and administer such medications at home. The healthcare providers with higher education and working in special care units scored highly in the support of family-centered participation.

Additionally, the variations in attitudes and perceptions were disclosed through the study of the empowerment of families into healthcare. Therefore, the empowerment in family-centered care context is described as a shift in the power balance between families and healthcare professionals. It occurs especially when families are supported in extending their parental responsibility of advocating for their children care, as well as making critical decisions regarding their children’s well-being and health. Although all nurses acknowledged theoretical framework of empowering women, more experienced nurses exhibited a positive attitude towards the ability of families to engage into their child care and they were less threatened by change of traditional functions of the less experienced nurses. Furthermore, nurses identified hospital working environment and culture as some of the factors impacting their capability of empowering parents effectively in care for their hospitalized children.

In another point of view, the varied perceptions in the implementation of family-centered care were also experienced among hospital-based nurses. It is apparent that nurses with much more experience, better education and caring infants under five years, were found to be less probable to agree to the premise that nurses are more sensitive to family-centered care. In addition, communication between nurses and family members was marked as an important factor in negotiating roles and required some improvement. Majority of the nurses provided that parents do not know what family-centered care entails. Conversely, there were differences in perception of family-centered care among healthcare systems. Therefore, there are varying degrees in the provision of family-centered care towards pediatric patients in emergency departments in various states. The healthcare systems that were highly supportive to family-centered care included those with culture that embraced inclusion of families, educational programs and specific competences in relation to family-centered care.

However, the difference in healthcare providers’ perception in relation to the actual elements of family-centered care can be established through a theoretical model. Such model established that nurses and other healthcare professionals demonstrated varied perceptions in many aspects of a family-centered framework necessary for working with families and children. However, the model provides that healthcare professionals did not always incorporate family-centered care aspects into their practice. The perceptions of the healthcare professionals varied based on some characteristics such as education levels, teaching or administrative positions and levels of care units, such as intensive care units. Other characteristics include working experience, expertise and healthcare professionals such as palliative care providers. For example, families expect to engage into a coherent relationship with healthcare professionals so that to participate in providing parental care to the hospitalized children. It is finally contended that nurses who support the notion of family-centered care encounter numerous difficulties in implementing such beneficial philosophy of care into real working situation.

Family-centered care is regarded as a multi-faceted concept that requires multiple approaches to assess its implementation and effectiveness. In Omid’s story, his mother reports her encounter with health professionals as positive and greatly empowering. In other instances, her experiences were negative and degrading. There were several strengths of the multisite survey that were identified. The evidence in multisite survey showed that there exist variations in the provisions of family-centered care in terms of culture. Such differences in perceptions were favored by barriers to provision of family-centered care. Such barriers include lack of efficient communication skills, negative attitudes, feelings of intimidation, fear of losing their roles, perceived threats, difficulties in developing relationships and role negotiation, as well as inadequate time and lack of supportive commitments from the healthcare professionals. Family-centered care concept has emerged to allow members of the family to participate in caring of their hospitalized children by establishing a coherent relationship with healthcare professionals.

The two studies have demonstrated the value of the families in the family-centered care system. It is discouraging to note that even after essentials of family-centered care were conceptualized about five decades ago, nurses continue to resist providing this kind of care. The gap that exists between what is practiced and what is perceived demarcates an elaborate area of dissatisfaction and frustration for clinicians and families.

You can check the nursing school interview questions here.
Grace Hudditon Dec 17 '19 · Tags: care, family, nursing

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