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A dewatering screw press is a screw press that separates liquids from solids. A screw press can be used instead of a belt press, centrifuge or filter paper. It is a simple, slow-moving piece of equipment that accomplishes dewatering by continuous gravity drainage. Screw presses are typically used for materials that are difficult to compact, such as those that tend to pile together. The screw press squeezes the material onto a sieve or filter and the liquid is collected through the sieve for collection and use.

An example of a dehydrating https://kuosiequipment.com/equipments/sludge-dewatering-machine/screw-press/ is a wine press. These machines date back to Roman times and work in a similar manner to modern screw presses, but have some disadvantages that have been corrected and improved upon in modern presses. Ancient wine presses only allowed the grapes to be juiced in batches, usually forming a thick cake on the sieve, making it difficult for the juice to flow through the sieve and be collected for use as wine. Most modern screw presses provide a continuous flow of material by surrounding the screw with a screen, which also helps to avoid a build-up of a layer of solid material on the screen. A modern approach even removes the screens in favor of a fixed and moving ring system, which often eliminates solids buildup entirely.

The most common screw press of this design is said to have been invented by the famous Greek mathematician Archimedes and is known as the screw conveyor. A screw conveyor consists of a shaft surrounded by a helical steel plate, similar in design and appearance to a corkscrew. This design is used in a variety of screw presses. There are some machines of this or similar design that aren't screw presses at all - they don't separate solids from liquids, but rather fuse them together. An example of this is a mold filling machine. The plastic inserts one end of the pellet and heats it, melting the pellet and discharging it into the mold. Another example is a cookware extruder used to produce snack foods such as pretzels.

Most screw presses can pump diluted material directly into the screw press, although pre-thickening can sometimes improve press performance. This is usually done using static or side slope screens, rotary drum screens, belt presses or gravity tables.

Valerius Anderson's intermittent flight design, patented in 1900, is the most commonly used as opposed to the continuous flight design. Anderson, while working on continuous flight designs, noticed that it caused co-rotation and resulted in less efficient dehydration, especially when using softer materials for dehydration. He solved this problem by breaking the threads of the screw. Breaks allow the material to stop forward movement between breaks along the shaft and also allow the material to build up sufficiently before being pushed through the screw press into a container where the material is captured. This allows for better dehydration and releases a stable cake material.

The use of interrupted flight design screw presses extends from soft or mushy materials to include screw presses for most materials because, unlike continuous design screw presses, interrupted flight designs do not require a constant feed or consistency of the material . If either of these were reduced in a continuous flight design, the production of dehydrated product would also be reduced, and to avoid this while maintaining a continuous flight design, larger and heavier presses would have to be added at variable speed settings; the press also An operator is required.

As mentioned above, the interrupted flight design eliminates the need for consistency because the compression of the screw does not change as the material does not advance through the screw until a sufficient amount of material is formed. This also eliminates the need to change speeds and operators. The design enables self-correction and efficiencies not possible with continuous designs. It allows for a more cost-effective screw press not only for sticky-slippery materials. Over time and with its original patent, resistor teeth were added to presses without scratches to increase the agitation of the material, thereby limiting the tendency to co-rotate within the press.

The accumulation of moisture in the press cake is controlled by a discharge gate or cone. Screw presses are available with different options including perforated/grooved screens, rotating cones, hard surfaces on the screw and supplementary screen surfaces in the inlet feed hopper on the cone face. Standard construction on screw presses is stainless steel, with carbon steel frames on larger presses. However, the exact details of screw press design depend on the material. Configurations of various materials, screw speeds, and screen sizes allow for excellent outlet consistency, including excellent capture rates. Most screw presses are designed to convey materials with a moisture content of 40-60%. The aspect ratio of the screw press also depends on the material. Capacity range of screw presses.

Compression is created within a screw press by increasing the inner shaft diameter of the screw. For example, if a 16 inch screw press starts with a 6 inch shaft, the pitch on the screw will be 5 inches high. If you increase the 6" shaft diameter to 12" at the discharge port, the fight will only be 2" taller at this point. So, apply compression as you press the material from the 5 inch opening through the 2 inch space.

This compression can also be achieved, thereby tightening the threads of the screw. If the pitch is 16 inches at the inlet, the material will move 16 inches per revolution. If it is then lowered to 8" at the discharge point, the material will move 8" per revolution. This results in more material being pressed into the press than can be forced out of the press at one time. This creates the required compression and pushes the liquid through the screen.

Another way to achieve compression is to place a cone at the discharge point. This can also be called a choke, plug or gate. In many designs it is bolted into a fixed position, creating a small fixed opening through which it must pass. More commonly, however, screw presses use hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders to push the cone into the discharge point.

Commonly used disinfection methods are divided into physical disinfection, chemical disinfection and biological disinfection.

1. Physical disinfection method: refers to the method of killing or eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and other harmful microorganisms through physical factors. It is characterized by rapid action, and no harmful substances are left behind for disinfection items. Commonly used physical disinfection methods include natural purification, mechanical disinfection, thermal disinfection and ultraviolet irradiation.

2. Chemical disinfection method: refers to the method of disinfection with chemicals. The chemical disinfection method is easy to use and does not require complicated equipment, but some disinfection drugs have certain toxicity and corrosiveness. In order to ensure the disinfection effect and reduce the toxic and side effects, the prescribed conditions of use and instructions for use must be strictly observed.

3. Biological disinfection method: It is the use of some organisms to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. It is characterized by slow action and limited effect, but low cost. Mainly used for the sanitation of garbage and excrement. Commonly used methods are biological thermal disinfection technology and biological oxidation disinfection technology.

Water treatment disinfection systems use chemical methods to attack and eliminate bacteria (fungi, bacteria) and viruses. The process of these systems differs from that of preservatives, which do not allow microbial materials to spread through various means without completely destroying them. Water disinfection is an essential element in the production of high-quality water, which can be used for reproductive or other purposes. Water disinfection is the process of killing pathogenic microorganisms that are harmful to humans in urban water treatment systems. In the urban water supply system, the water supply plant of the groundwater source (the incoming water from the groundwater source generally undergoes simple sedimentation treatment or direct sterilization treatment) can remove a large number of bacteria through coagulation, sedimentation and filtration in the water. Generally speaking, coagulation and sedimentation can remove 50-90% of the coliform bacteria in the water, and filtration can further remove about 90% of the coliform bacteria in the water, but it is far from the requirements stipulated in the drinking water quality standard (qualified index). Less than 3 E. coli in 1 liter of water used for drinking water disinfection). The water at this time also contains about 100 coliform bacteria, so it needs to be disinfected. There are many methods of water disinfection, commonly used are chlorine disinfection, ozone disinfection, ultraviolet disinfection and so on. According to these disinfection methods, there are chlorine dioxide system, ozone generator, sodium hypochlorite generator, ultraviolet disinfection system, etc.

Disinfectants can be classified in various ways such as chemical composition, disinfection effect, etc. Most disinfectants can be divided into four types: biocidal disinfectants, high-efficiency disinfectants, medium-efficiency disinfectants and low-efficiency disinfectants according to their disinfection effects.

Killing disinfectants: including formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ethylene oxide, etc., can kill all microorganisms and meet the sterilization requirements;

High-efficiency disinfectants: including peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, dichlorodimethylethyl lactam, etc., can kill all bacterial propagules, viruses, fungi and spores;

Moderate disinfectant: including ethanol, chlorhexidine, iodophor, etc., which cannot kill bacterial spores, but can kill bacterial propagules, fungi and most viruses;

Inefficient disinfectants: including benzalkonium bromide, benzalkonium chloride, phenol, etc., can kill most bacterial propagules, some fungi and viruses, but cannot kill bacterial spores, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and some fungi and viruses.

Different disinfectants are suitable fohttps://kuosiequipment.com/equipments/dissolved-air-flotation-daf-system/ For example, inactivated disinfectants should be used in the sterilization of operating rooms and medical equipment, high-efficiency disinfectants should be used in medical places, medium-efficiency disinfectants should be used in skin disinfection, and low-efficiency disinfectants should be used in wound cleaning. .

Used in rainwater treatment, wastewater treatment, groundwater, surface water, seawater desalination, reverse osmosis.

Water treatment is the process of removing some substances in water that are not needed for production and life through physical and chemical means. It is a process of water quality adjustment such as precipitation, filtration (self-cleaning filter), coagulation, flocculation, and corrosion inhibition and scale inhibition of water for specific purposes.

Because social production and life are closely related to water, the application range involved in the field of water treatment is very wide, which constitutes a huge industrial application.

There are two types of water treatment: sewage treatment and drinking water treatment.

Commonly used water treatment agents are: polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum ferric chloride, basic aluminum chloride, polyacrylamide, activated carbon and various filter materials.

The effect of water treatment can be weighed by water quality standards.

water treatment productsis the process of processing raw water (raw water) in order to meet the quality requirements of finished water (water for domestic or production and wastewater for final disposal). When the raw water for processing is domestic or industrial water, it is called water supply treatment; when processing waste water, it is called wastewater treatment. The purpose of wastewater treatment is for wastewater discharge (to water or land) or for reuse. In the recycling water system and water regeneration treatment, the raw water is waste water, and the finished water is water. Water treatment also includes the treatment and final disposal of wastewater and sludge generated during the treatment process, and sometimes the treatment and discharge of waste gas. Water treatment methods can be summarized in three ways: 1. The most commonly used method is to obtain the required water quality by removing part or all of the acrobatics from the raw water; 2. To obtain the required water quality by adding new components to the raw water; 3. The processing of raw water does not involve removing impurities or adding new components.

Impurities in water include entrained coarse substances, suspended solids, colloids and dissolved substances. Coarse substances such as sunken aquatic plants in the river, garbage, large aquatic organisms, gravel in wastewater, and large pieces of dirt. In the water supply project, the coarse impurities are removed by the facilities of water intake structures (such as grids), which are not included in the scope of water treatment. In wastewater treatment, the removal of coarse impurities generally belongs to the pretreatment part of water. Suspended solids and colloids include sediment, algae, bacteria, viruses, and insoluble substances originally in water and produced during water treatment. Dissolved substances include inorganic salts, organic dumps and compounds.

There are many treatment methods for removing impurities in water, and the scope of application of the main methods can be roughly divided according to the particle size of impurities. Since the impurities contained in the raw water and the finished water are very different in various types and uses, the water treatment process is also very different. As far as domestic water (or urban public water supply) is concerned, raw water from high-quality water sources (well water or well-protected water supply reservoirs) is finished water as long as it is disinfected (ultraviolet sterilizer, ozone generator, chlorination, etc.). ; Raw water taken from general rivers or lakes must first be removed by sand filtration, self-cleaning filters, automatic filters and other filtration equipment to remove turbid impurities such as sediment, and then disinfected; raw water with severe pollution needs to be removed. Organic matter, etc. Contaminants; raw water containing iron and manganese (such as some well water), iron and manganese need to be removed. Domestic water can meet the water quality requirements of general industrial water, but industrial water sometimes needs further processing, such as softening, desalination, etc. When the water quality requirements for wastewater discharge or reuse are low, only filtration (self-cleaning filters, etc.) and sedimentation methods are used to remove coarse impurities and suspended solids (often called primary treatment); when organic matter removal is required, generally After primary treatment, biological treatment method (often called secondary treatment) and disinfection (ultraviolet sterilizer, ozone generator, chlorination, etc.) are used; for the wastewater after biological treatment, the treatment process is collectively referred to as tertiary treatment or Advanced treatment, such as the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus when the wastewater discharged into the water body needs to prevent eutrophication, belongs to the tertiary treatment. When wastewater is used as the water source, the quality requirements of the finished water and the corresponding processing procedures depend on its use.

Water treatment equipment includes: water treatment equipment, self-cleaning filter, automatic backwash filter, differential pressure filter, high-precision filter.

The filter can remove impurities such as sediment, clay, suspended solids, algae, biological slime, macromolecular bacteria, organic matter and other tiny particles in the water. Widely used in food, petroleum, chemical industry, papermaking, hotels, metallurgy, mining, electric power, irrigation, aquaculture, circulating water, reclaimed water reuse, municipal water, various pretreatment filtration and other industries.

The development of flow measurement can be traced back to ancient water projects and urban water supply systems. In the time of Roman Caesar, perforated plates were used to measure the drinking water of residents. Ancient Egypt used the weir method to measure the flow of the Nile around 1000 BC. Our country's famous Dujiangyan water conservancy project application bottle mouth water level observation water quantity and so on.

Measurement is the eye of industrial production. Flow measurement is one of the components of measurement science and technology, which is closely related to national economy, national defense construction and scientific research. Do this work, to ensure product quality, improve production efficiency, promote the development of science and technology has an important role, especially in the energy crisis, industrial production automation degree is more and more high in today's era, the status and role of flowmeter in the national economy is more obvious.

Flowmeters are divided into differential pressure flowmeters, rotor flowmeters, throttling flowmeters, slit flowmeters, volume flowmeters, electromagnetic flowmeters, ultrasonic flowmeters, turbine flowmeters and vortex flowmeters and so on. According to the medium classification: liquid flow meter, gas flow meter, steam flow meter and solid https://apureinstrument.com/flow-meter/

The development of surveying can be traced back [3] to ancient water conservancy projects and urban water supply systems. In the time of Roman Caesar, perforated plates were used to measure the drinking water of residents. Ancient Egypt used the weir method to measure the flow of the Nile around 1000 BC. The famous Dujiangweir water conservancy project of our country applies bottle mouth water level observation water flow meter etc. Measurement is the eye of industrial production. Flow measurement is one of the components of measurement science and technology, which is closely related to national economy, national defense construction and scientific research. Do this work, to ensure product quality, improve production efficiency, promote the development of science and technology has an important role, especially in the energy crisis, industrial production automation degree is more and more high in today's era, the status and role of flowmeter in the national economy is more obvious. Flowmeter is divided into differential pressure flowmeter, rotor flowmeter, throttling flowmeter, slit flowmeter, volume flowmeter, electromagnetic flowmeter, ultrasonic flowmeter and weir, etc. Classification by medium: liquid flow meter and gas flow meter.

Orifet flowmeter is a differential pressure generating device for measuring flow. It can measure the flow of various fluids in the pipeline with various differential pressure gauges or differential pressure transmitters. Orifice flowmeter throttling device includes annular chamber orifice plate, nozzle, etc. Orifet flowmeter throttling device and differential pressure transmitter matching use, can measure the flow of liquid, steam, gas, orifet flowmeter is widely used in dry petroleum, chemical, metallurgical, electric power, light industry and other departments. When the fluid filling the pipe passes through the throttling device in the pipe, the flow beam will be at the node of the throttling device

The flow part forms a local contraction, so that the flow rate increases, the static pressure is low, and the pressure drop is generated before and after the throttle, that is, the pressure difference. The greater the flow rate of the medium flow, the greater the pressure difference before and after the throttle. So the orifice flowmeter can measure the size of the fluid flow by measuring the pressure difference. This measurement method is based on the law of energy balance and the law of continuity of flow. Intelligent throttling device (orifice flowmeter) is a new generation flowmeter that integrates flow, temperature and pressure detection functions, and can automatically compensate temperature and pressure. The orifice flowmeter adopts advanced microcomputer technology and new micro-power consumption technology, with strong function, compact structure, simple operation and easy to use.

Water SOURCE PROTECTION: IN ORDER TO CONTROL WATER SOURCE pollution, THE development of seriously polluting industries within the water source basin shall be prohibited to reduce the discharge of pollutants. However, from the current momentum of economic development and the actual situation of relevant national laws and regulations and enforcement efforts, it is a very serious issue to improve the water quality in the short term, and there will be a long process.

Renovation of PROCESS equipment in waterworks: THE renovation of waterworks can improve the quality of tap water to a certain extent, but it can't solve the problem fundamentally, especially the secondary pollution of pipes. And the reform cost is huge. From the current situation of our country, we can foresee the renewal of equipment and technology of waterworks and the whole transformation of waterworks in 10 to 20 years is difficult to realize.

Pipeline split water supply: There are many problems in pipeline split water supply due to its engineering cost, design and construction, management and maintenance, water charge collection, sanitation index and safety degree. In addition, the pipeline water supply can only be applied to new buildings. For a large number of our existing residential communities, the water pollution problem cannot be solved because of the re-laying of pipes.

Water PURIFICATION AT THE end OF the HOUSEHOLD pipe network: WHO research shows that the most effective way to enjoy healthy water is to install a water purifier at the end of the municipal pipe network, namely the household water terminal, to purify tap water.

1. Biological method

2. The treatment ofhttps://apureinstrument.com/blogs/solution-of-water-pollution/ includes internal environmental treatment and external environmental treatment. The former is the treatment of pollution sources, which is difficult and costly. The latter is the treatment of water pollution by using the purification ability of natural environment. Biological purification is an important means of external environment governance. It is a water pollution treatment method which accords with the situation of our country.

3. Because there are biological species everywhere on Earth that can participate in purification activities, they absorb, accumulate, decompose and transform pollutants through their own unique metabolic activities, reduce the concentration of pollutants, make toxic substances become non-toxic, and finally reach the water discharge standards. Therefore, the use of biological sewage purification by people's attention. The specific method is as follows.

4. (1) precipitation treatment method (2) aquatic biological culture method (3) biological weighing method (4) activated sludge method (5) biofilm method (6) biological contact weighting method (7) land treatment system (8) immobilized cell method

5, 2, physical method (cellulose based adsorption method)

6. There are many ways to deal with water pollution by physical method, including membrane engineering method and adsorption method. Among them, the adsorption method is the most important because of its diversity, high efficiency, ease of handling, reusable, and possibly low cost. Activated carbon is now the most widely used adsorbent, mainly used to adsorb organic matter, can also be used to adsorb heavy metals, but the price is relatively expensive. Magnetic alginate can adsorb not only organic arsenic but also heavy metals. As a biosorbent, chitosan can adsorb heavy metal cations and harmful anions in different environments. Bone carbon, aluminum salts, iron salts and rare earth adsorbents are effective adsorbents of harmful anions. Rice husk, modified starch, wool and modified bentonite can be used to adsorb heavy metal cations. With the increasing complexity of water quality and the progress of science and technology, adsorbents for water treatment not only require high efficiency, but also low cost. As the most abundant renewable polymer resources in the world, cellulose is very cheap and can become an ideal adsorbent matrix material.

7. (1) The source of cellulose

8. Cellulose is the most important skeletal component in plants, mainly from cotton, wood, flax, straw and so on. Cellulose is the most abundant renewable resource in the world. According to incomplete statistics, more than 100 billion tons of cellulose is produced by photosynthesis worldwide every year. For thousands of years, cellulose has only been used to make energy, building materials and clothing. As a chemical raw material, it has only been studied for 150 years. The molecular chain structure of cellulose is as follows. It is a linear polymer consisting of β-D-glucose group repeatedly linked by 1-4 glycoside bonds, which has the characteristics of hydrophilicity, chirality and biodegradability. Each glucose ring of cellulose contains three active hydroxyl groups, which can take place a series of chemical reactions related to hydroxyl groups, so it is widely modified chemically. The common modification methods of cellulose are: oxidation reaction, esterification reaction, etherification reaction, halogenation reaction, radical graft copolymerization reaction.

9, (2) Application of modified cellulose in water treatment

10. According to the types of pollutants in water, different methods can be chosen to modify different groups on cellulose for the adsorption of pollutants in water.

11, A, adsorption of heavy metal cation B, adsorption of harmful anion C, adsorption of organic matter

12. 3. Chemical method

13, the use of chemical reaction, by changing the nature of pollutants to reduce their harm or conducive to the separation and removal of pollutants. Including to all kinds of wastewater add all kinds of flocculant, so that the chemical reaction with the pollutants in the water, the generation of insoluble in water or insoluble in water compounds, precipitate precipitation, so that the waste water to purify the chemical precipitation method; Neutralization of acidic or alkaline wastewater by neutralization; Chemical oxidation method using liquid chlorine, ozone and other strong oxidants to oxidize and decompose pollutants in wastewater; Using the principle of electrolysis, in the Yin and Yang polarity of oxidation and reduction reaction respectively, so that the water to achieve purification of electrolysis method.

14. (1) Oxidation method (2) electrolysis method (3) supercritical technology

Benefits of ozone water generator

Ozone machine using high voltage discharge, make oxygen in the air ionization, ozone, ozone than oxygen molecules active, is a strong oxidant, ozone dissolved in water into ozone water, can clean fruits and vegetables, extend the freshness period, removal of residual pesticides, sterilization; Can clean skin wounds; Can be used for drinking water disinfection or swimming pool disinfection; Wash clothes, deodorize, etc.

Function and use of ozone generator

1. Sterilization and disinfection:

(1) Food factories, pharmaceutical factories need to conduct flow immersion sterilization on the surface of raw materials and other objects, and form a sterile surface of raw materials (packaging containers can be exposed to high concentration ozone gas to complete sterilization). Such as fruit after cleaning can be sterile and can be made into concentrated juice.

(2) In the processing of aquatic products -- before frozen packaging, the sanitary indicators of aquatic products have been perfectly controlled by high-concentration ozone water spraying sterilization or over-flow immersion sterilization, avoiding the problem of excess chlorine caused by the use of chloride.

(3) In the process of liquid food processing (such as beverage, juice, etc.) and the production of pharmaceutical factories, high concentration ozone water can be used to soak and rinse pipelines, production equipment and containers, so as to achieve efficient sterilization. The bacteria and viruses on the surface of pipes, equipment and containers are washed and killed, which is very simple and easy. Won'T PRODUCE DEAD Angle NAMELY, STILL AVOIDED TO USE OTHER CHEMICAL DISINFECTANT TO BRING HARMFUL MATERIAL DISCHARGE AND RESIDUE, AND OZONE DOES NOT HAVE ANY RESIDUE AND SECONDARY pollution.

(4) can be widely used in hotels, hotels, organs canteen-hall, for food, fruit and vegetables sterilization; And children's toys, objects surface sterilization and disinfection.

2, pesticide degradation: can be widely used in public dining halls, fruit and vegetable processing plants, food processing plants and other places, used to remove pesticides, fertilizers, food additives and other harmful substances.

3, water treatment: can be widely used in industrial water algae, sterilization, aquaculture water sterilization disease prevention, sewage treatment process deodorization, decolorization, sterilization and other processes.

4, food preservation: can be widely used in freezing plant, food processing plant, livestock slaughterhouse and other units in the production and processing process of raw materials and finished products storage, preservation, disinfection process.

5. Purification and cleaning:

(1) can be widely used in ozone laundry is the hotel, hotel, sauna, hospital, pharmaceutical, food and other industries washing clothes ideal choice machine.

(2) It can be widely used in the purification and cleaning of public places, toilets and production sites.

Water SOURCE PROTECTION: IN ORDER TO CONTROL WATER SOURCE pollution, THE development of seriously polluting industries within the water source basin shall be prohibited to reduce the discharge of pollutants. However, from the current momentum of economic development and the actual situation of relevant national laws and regulations and enforcement efforts, it is a very serious issue to improve the water quality in the short term, and there will be a long process.

Renovation of PROCESS equipment in waterworks: THE renovation of waterworks can improve the quality of tap water to a certain extent, but it can't solve the problem fundamentally, especially the secondary pollution of pipes. And the reform cost is huge. From the current situation of our country, we can foresee the renewal of equipment and technology of waterworks and the whole transformation of waterworks in 10 to 20 years is difficult to realize.

Pipeline split water supply: There are many problems in pipeline split water supply due to its engineering cost, design and construction, management and maintenance, water charge collection, sanitation index and safety degree. In addition, the pipeline water supply can only be applied to new buildings. For a large number of our existing residential communities, the water pollution problem cannot be solved because of the re-laying of pipes.

Water PURIFICATION AT THE end OF the HOUSEHOLD pipe network: WHO research shows that the most effective way to enjoy healthy water is to install a water purifier at the end of the municipal pipe network, namely the household water terminal, to purify tap water.

1. Biological method

The treatment of https://apureinstrument.com/blogs/solution-of-water-pollution/ includes internal environmental treatment and external environmental treatment. The former is the treatment of pollution sources, which is difficult and costly. The latter is the treatment of water pollution by using the purification ability of natural environment. Biological purification is an important means of external environment governance. It is a water pollution treatment method which accords with the situation of our country.

Because there are biological species everywhere on Earth that can participate in purification activities, they absorb, accumulate, decompose and transform pollutants through their own unique metabolic activities, reduce the concentration of pollutants, make toxic substances become non-toxic, and finally meet the water discharge standards. Therefore, the use of biological sewage purification by people's attention. The specific method is as follows.

(1) precipitation treatment method (2) aquatic biological culture method (3) biological weighing method (4) activated sludge method (5) biofilm method (6) biological contact weighting method (7) land treatment system (8) immobilized cell method

2, physical method (cellulose based adsorption method)

There are many ways to treat water pollution by physical method, including membrane engineering method and adsorption method. Among them, the adsorption method is the most important because of its diversity, high efficiency, ease of handling, reusable, and possibly low cost. Activated carbon is now the most widely used adsorbent, mainly used to adsorb organic matter, can also be used to adsorb heavy metals, but the price is relatively expensive. Magnetic alginate can adsorb not only organic arsenic but also heavy metals. As a biosorbent, chitosan can adsorb heavy metal cations and harmful anions in different environments. Bone carbon, aluminum salts, iron salts and rare earth adsorbents are effective adsorbents of harmful anions. Rice husk, modified starch, wool and modified bentonite can be used to adsorb heavy metal cations. With the increasing complexity of water quality and the progress of science and technology, adsorbents for water treatment not only require high efficiency, but also low cost. As the most abundant renewable polymer resources in the world, cellulose is very cheap and can become an ideal adsorbent matrix material.

(1) The source of cellulose

Cellulose is the most important skeletal component in plants, mainly from cotton, wood, flax, straw and so on. Cellulose is the most abundant renewable resource in the world. According to incomplete statistics, more than 100 billion tons of cellulose is produced by photosynthesis worldwide every year. For thousands of years, cellulose has only been used to make energy, building materials and clothing. As a chemical raw material, it has only been studied for 150 years. The molecular chain structure of cellulose is as follows. It is a linear polymer consisting of β-D-glucose group repeatedly linked by 1-4 glycoside bonds, which has the characteristics of hydrophilicity, chirality and biodegradability. Each glucose ring of cellulose contains three active hydroxyl groups, which can take place a series of chemical reactions related to hydroxyl groups, so it is widely modified chemically. The common modification methods of cellulose are: oxidation reaction, esterification reaction, etherification reaction, halogenation reaction, radical graft copolymerization reaction.

(2) Application of modified cellulose in water treatment

According to the kinds of pollutants in water, different methods can be selected to modify different groups on cellulose for the adsorption of pollutants in water.

A, adsorption of heavy metal cation B, adsorption of harmful anion C, adsorption of organic matter

3. Chemical method

The use of chemical reactions to reduce the harmfulness of pollutants by changing their properties or to facilitate their separation and removal. Including to all kinds of wastewater add all kinds of flocculant, so that the chemical reaction with the pollutants in the water, the generation of insoluble in water or insoluble in water compounds, precipitate precipitation, so that the waste water to purify the chemical precipitation method; Neutralization of acidic or alkaline wastewater by neutralization; Chemical oxidation method using liquid chlorine, ozone and other strong oxidants to oxidize and decompose pollutants in wastewater; Using the principle of electrolysis, in the Yin and Yang polarity of oxidation and reduction reaction respectively, so that the water to achieve purification of electrolysis method.

(1) oxidation method (2) electrolysis method (3) supercritical technology

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