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Commonly used disinfection methods are divided into physical disinfection, chemical disinfection and biological disinfection.

1. Physical disinfection method: refers to the method of killing or eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and other harmful microorganisms through physical factors. It is characterized by rapid action, and no harmful substances are left behind for disinfection items. Commonly used physical disinfection methods include natural purification, mechanical disinfection, thermal disinfection and ultraviolet irradiation.

2. Chemical disinfection method: refers to the method of disinfection with chemicals. The chemical disinfection method is easy to use and does not require complicated equipment, but some disinfection drugs have certain toxicity and corrosiveness. In order to ensure the disinfection effect and reduce the toxic and side effects, the prescribed conditions of use and instructions for use must be strictly observed.

3. Biological disinfection method: It is the use of some organisms to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. It is characterized by slow action and limited effect, but low cost. Mainly used for the sanitation of garbage and excrement. Commonly used methods are biological thermal disinfection technology and biological oxidation disinfection technology.

Water treatment disinfection systems use chemical methods to attack and eliminate bacteria (fungi, bacteria) and viruses. The process of these systems differs from that of preservatives, which do not allow microbial materials to spread through various means without completely destroying them. Water disinfection is an essential element in the production of high-quality water, which can be used for reproductive or other purposes. Water disinfection is the process of killing pathogenic microorganisms that are harmful to humans in urban water treatment systems. In the urban water supply system, the water supply plant of the groundwater source (the incoming water from the groundwater source generally undergoes simple sedimentation treatment or direct sterilization treatment) can remove a large number of bacteria through coagulation, sedimentation and filtration in the water. Generally speaking, coagulation and sedimentation can remove 50-90% of the coliform bacteria in the water, and filtration can further remove about 90% of the coliform bacteria in the water, but it is far from the requirements stipulated in the drinking water quality standard (qualified index). Less than 3 E. coli in 1 liter of water used for drinking water disinfection). The water at this time also contains about 100 coliform bacteria, so it needs to be disinfected. There are many methods of water disinfection, commonly used are chlorine disinfection, ozone disinfection, ultraviolet disinfection and so on. According to these disinfection methods, there are chlorine dioxide system, ozone generator, sodium hypochlorite generator, ultraviolet disinfection system, etc.

Disinfectants can be classified in various ways such as chemical composition, disinfection effect, etc. Most disinfectants can be divided into four types: biocidal disinfectants, high-efficiency disinfectants, medium-efficiency disinfectants and low-efficiency disinfectants according to their disinfection effects.

Killing disinfectants: including formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ethylene oxide, etc., can kill all microorganisms and meet the sterilization requirements;

High-efficiency disinfectants: including peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, dichlorodimethylethyl lactam, etc., can kill all bacterial propagules, viruses, fungi and spores;

Moderate disinfectant: including ethanol, chlorhexidine, iodophor, etc., which cannot kill bacterial spores, but can kill bacterial propagules, fungi and most viruses;

Inefficient disinfectants: including benzalkonium bromide, benzalkonium chloride, phenol, etc., can kill most bacterial propagules, some fungi and viruses, but cannot kill bacterial spores, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and some fungi and viruses.

Different disinfectants are suitable fo For example, inactivated disinfectants should be used in the sterilization of operating rooms and medical equipment, high-efficiency disinfectants should be used in medical places, medium-efficiency disinfectants should be used in skin disinfection, and low-efficiency disinfectants should be used in wound cleaning. .

Used in rainwater treatment, wastewater treatment, groundwater, surface water, seawater desalination, reverse osmosis.

Water treatment is the process of removing some substances in water that are not needed for production and life through physical and chemical means. It is a process of water quality adjustment such as precipitation, filtration (self-cleaning filter), coagulation, flocculation, and corrosion inhibition and scale inhibition of water for specific purposes.

Because social production and life are closely related to water, the application range involved in the field of water treatment is very wide, which constitutes a huge industrial application.

There are two types of water treatment: sewage treatment and drinking water treatment.

Commonly used water treatment agents are: polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum ferric chloride, basic aluminum chloride, polyacrylamide, activated carbon and various filter materials.

The effect of water treatment can be weighed by water quality standards.

water treatment productsis the process of processing raw water (raw water) in order to meet the quality requirements of finished water (water for domestic or production and wastewater for final disposal). When the raw water for processing is domestic or industrial water, it is called water supply treatment; when processing waste water, it is called wastewater treatment. The purpose of wastewater treatment is for wastewater discharge (to water or land) or for reuse. In the recycling water system and water regeneration treatment, the raw water is waste water, and the finished water is water. Water treatment also includes the treatment and final disposal of wastewater and sludge generated during the treatment process, and sometimes the treatment and discharge of waste gas. Water treatment methods can be summarized in three ways: 1. The most commonly used method is to obtain the required water quality by removing part or all of the acrobatics from the raw water; 2. To obtain the required water quality by adding new components to the raw water; 3. The processing of raw water does not involve removing impurities or adding new components.

Impurities in water include entrained coarse substances, suspended solids, colloids and dissolved substances. Coarse substances such as sunken aquatic plants in the river, garbage, large aquatic organisms, gravel in wastewater, and large pieces of dirt. In the water supply project, the coarse impurities are removed by the facilities of water intake structures (such as grids), which are not included in the scope of water treatment. In wastewater treatment, the removal of coarse impurities generally belongs to the pretreatment part of water. Suspended solids and colloids include sediment, algae, bacteria, viruses, and insoluble substances originally in water and produced during water treatment. Dissolved substances include inorganic salts, organic dumps and compounds.

There are many treatment methods for removing impurities in water, and the scope of application of the main methods can be roughly divided according to the particle size of impurities. Since the impurities contained in the raw water and the finished water are very different in various types and uses, the water treatment process is also very different. As far as domestic water (or urban public water supply) is concerned, raw water from high-quality water sources (well water or well-protected water supply reservoirs) is finished water as long as it is disinfected (ultraviolet sterilizer, ozone generator, chlorination, etc.). ; Raw water taken from general rivers or lakes must first be removed by sand filtration, self-cleaning filters, automatic filters and other filtration equipment to remove turbid impurities such as sediment, and then disinfected; raw water with severe pollution needs to be removed. Organic matter, etc. Contaminants; raw water containing iron and manganese (such as some well water), iron and manganese need to be removed. Domestic water can meet the water quality requirements of general industrial water, but industrial water sometimes needs further processing, such as softening, desalination, etc. When the water quality requirements for wastewater discharge or reuse are low, only filtration (self-cleaning filters, etc.) and sedimentation methods are used to remove coarse impurities and suspended solids (often called primary treatment); when organic matter removal is required, generally After primary treatment, biological treatment method (often called secondary treatment) and disinfection (ultraviolet sterilizer, ozone generator, chlorination, etc.) are used; for the wastewater after biological treatment, the treatment process is collectively referred to as tertiary treatment or Advanced treatment, such as the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus when the wastewater discharged into the water body needs to prevent eutrophication, belongs to the tertiary treatment. When wastewater is used as the water source, the quality requirements of the finished water and the corresponding processing procedures depend on its use.

Water treatment equipment includes: water treatment equipment, self-cleaning filter, automatic backwash filter, differential pressure filter, high-precision filter.

The filter can remove impurities such as sediment, clay, suspended solids, algae, biological slime, macromolecular bacteria, organic matter and other tiny particles in the water. Widely used in food, petroleum, chemical industry, papermaking, hotels, metallurgy, mining, electric power, irrigation, aquaculture, circulating water, reclaimed water reuse, municipal water, various pretreatment filtration and other industries.

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