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As you know, safety syringes(ไซริงค์) are priced higher than conventional (unsafe) syringes. But it is shortsighted —and erroneous—to simply compare the purchase price of the safety syringe to that of the conventional syringe.

A much more realistic approach should include the cost of tests to see if accidental needlestick injury victims acquire


a bloodborne disease as a result of the injury. In addition, the cost of safe disposal of the syringe should be included.

Bloodborne diseases are transmitted from one person to another in different ways. Unfortunately, a very efficient method of transmission is with a syringe that is reused or that causes an accidental needlestick injury (NSI). In either case, blood from a patient (which may contain one or more of a host of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis or HIV) can contaminate the bloodstream of either another patient or someone else (such as a healthcare worker), often transmitting a serious—perhaps fatal—disease.


Upon the completion of an injection with a safety syringe(ไซริงค์), the needle is controllable and instantly retracted  from the patient into the barrel of the syringe. When this happens, the syringe is rendered non-reusable, and the contaminated needle is not available to prick the medical worker.


Most of the HIV/AIDS pandemic traditionally has been attributed to sexual transmission. However, several recent thought-provoking articles in medical journals have presented evidence that much of the transmission actually is caused by dirty needles.[1] Healthcare workers in the U.S. suffer an estimated 600,000 to 800,000 accidental needlestick injuries(สลิ้งฉีดยา) each year.[2] This amounts to one NSI for about every 6,000 injections given with a conventional syringe(สลิ้งฉีดยา).


Whenever a syringe is reused, or when a healthcare worker suffers an accidental NSI, it is imperative that tests be conducted to determine whether or not a bloodborne disease has been contracted. And often the tests must be repeated, because it may take several months before some pathogens can be detected. HIV sometimes lies dormant

in the human body for up to three years. Such tests are expensive: in the U.S., the cost is approximately $3,000.[3]


In instances where a bloodborne disease indeed has been contracted, treatment can be very expensive.Victims of NSI


are usually frontline healthcare workers: doctors and nurses that the world can ill afford to lose. And, of course,

there is no way to monetarily quantify human emotions such as fear and anxiety or potential damage to relationships.


Disposal costs must also be taken into account. This includes the cost of the sharps disposal box plus the cost of transportation to the incineration site and the cost of incineration. For a conventional (unsafe) syringe, the disposal cost is approximately $0.18 each. Activated   safety syringes(ไซริงค์) “nest” or pack together much more efficiently  than conventional syringes. Any sharps disposal box will hold at least two times as many activated (retracted) safety syringes as conventional syringes.


The actual (or true) cost of a syringe can be calculated as follows:

purchase price + testing cost + disposal cost = actual cost of a syringe

Even if the purchase price of a safety syringe were about two times as much as the purchase price of a conventional syringe(ไซริงค์), the actual cost of the conventional syringe would still be more expensive

When these costs are taken into account, it actually is much less expensive to use a truly effective safety syringe than to use a conventional syringe (or one of the marginal so-called “safety” syringes(สลิ้งฉีดยา) that do not do an effective job of preventing both reuse and NSI). It not only makes good sense to use the safest product, it also makes good economic sense.

As we get older it’s natural that our bodies age. With the harsh conditions that we face on a daily basis, airconditioned buildings, icy cold winters, heatwave summers and pollutants our bodies are put to the test. Just like any part of your body, your lips and face age as well. At Respect Cosmetic Medicine Adelaide, we can rejuvenate your lips giving you the confidence you deserve to give that extra bounce in your step.

Lip Enhancement Consultation

Receive a thorough consultation for a lip enhancement procedure with our Cosmetic Doctor before the procedure. Discussing with an experienced and qualified operator means you have the ability to discuss what you want to achieve and why. This also gives you the opportunity to learn more and address any concerns  you may have. This means you  can go ahead with the procedure with complete confidence.

At Respect, our Cosmetic Doctor initially will assess your lips and tailor a treatment to suit your face in consultation with you to achieve your goals.

Things to Consider

Our experienced team will also give you honest feedback. They have  years of experience working with lip fillers and knowing the end result. There are a number of factors to consider when undertaking a lip filler treatment. For example, voluptuous lips in some cases may look a bit over the top as you may have seen on Social Media.

What can I expect from Respect Cosmetic Medicine?

When it comes to Cosmetic Medicine, it’s all about you and our team certainly understand this. We want you to be comfortable with the treatment and work with you to achieve your goals. When you work with us at Respect, you can expect:

  1. A thorough consultation with a Fully Qualified and Experienced Cosmetic Doctor
  2. Final signoff by a Respect Doctor (or Respect SKYPE Doctor).
  3. Numbing cream can be applied if desired
  4. We complete the procedure at our practice conveniently located in Regent Arcade, Rundle Mall
  5. Aftercare will be explained and made clear before you leave to assist you at home for best results.
What Lip Enhancement Products Do You Use?

We are often asked what products we use for lip fillers. Due to industry regulations, we cannot promote product names online. What we can tell you is we use the most reputable brands in the world which have proven results. Simply get in touch with the team today as we are more than happy to discuss product options with you.

About Respect Cosmetic Medicine

The cosmetic clinic that is all about you! With qualified and experienced staff, specialising in the latest technology and techniques in anti-wrinkle and dermal filler, Respect Cosmetic Medicine are committed to providing the very best in non-surgical cosmetic medicine and active skincare to help you look and feel like your best self!

Cosmetic Medicine Adelaide Services

At Respect Cosmetic Medicine , we have a range of of muscle relaxants and fillers and other cosmetic treatments for you to choose from including:


Ageing is a natural part of life but the team at Respect can help stop the ageing process leaving you to look and feel your very best. Our medical innovations team in cosmetic medicine can rejuvenate your skin and give your youth back.


Respect Cosmetic Medicine is a reputable anti-ageing clinic in Adelaide established in 2000. We can give you back the “new you” without the need for surgery. At Respect Cosmetic Medicine , we are equipped with a variety of services from fillers to relaxants to help smooth out those wrinkles all offered in a professional environment. We offer a range of ethical cosmetic medical treatments for you to choose from. Enquire now!


Our staff are specialists in cosmetic medicine who will examine your skin and help you find the perfect treatment. Once you decide to receive the treatment, you will be taken care of by our experienced team of medical professionals.

AEC Trade Center-Pantip Wholesale Destination Center offers you a typical experience featured by the wide-ranging food, beverage, and kitchen equipment that are from across the globe.


The showcase aims to gather multiple local buyers and sellers in the food industry, food producers, exporters, and importers are welcome to experience the first comprehensive wholesale trade center that goes over and beyond with its solutions, including the use of omnichannel functions to help the business grow without boundaries in the age of the digital economy.


Beyond Exhibition

AEC Trade Center-Pantip Wholesale Destination Center offers you a typical experience featured by the wide-ranging food, beverage, and kitchen equipment that are from across the globe.



the region’s wholesale trade center(ค้าส่ง) with integrated services in the heart of Bangkok, debuting the FOOD DESTINATION CENTER campaign under the concept of BEYOND EXHIBITION


Why Visit

Beyond Exhibition presents the needs of buyers to source (ค้าส่ง), network, business matching and penetrate Thailand and ASEAN markets.


What's Happening


2 Nov 2021 – 24 Jan 2022



AEC Trade Center Pantip is a flagship project with a one-stop service wholesale center in the heart of Bangkok, the first in Thailand.



The largest wholesale center in ASEAN. A new dimension of wholesale(ขายส่ง) society.



Yiwu (YIWU) Republic of China, is the world’s largest wholesale city for miscellaneous goods.


The largest wholesale(ค้าส่ง) center in ASEAN. A new dimension of wholesale society. The best of the wholesale hub that combines upstream entrepreneurs and producers to become the largest new commercial society in the region with an area of ​​more than 300,000 square meters, total of 10 buildings, supporting 4,000 parking spaces, located on Phaholyothin Road Km. 52,  to meet all requires for buyers and sellers, reduce trading procedures and to provide convenience to the buyers, sellers(ขายส่ง) and service users of all groups.

What is hot wax?

Some hot waxes can vary quite a lot depending on the quality of the wax. In fact, some hot waxes can be very ineffective resulting in both hair and wax being left behind. At Essential Beauty, we’ve developed a unique hot wax formula made to be gentle on the skin – our Sensitive Hot Wax. It applies in a thin film (which is different to traditional hot wax), adhering to hairs you can see, and fine vellus hairs you can’t see! It has the grip on hair of strip wax but is made to be gentle on the skin and can help reduce redness and skin breakouts.

What is strip wax?

Strip wax is a very fast and effective method of waxing. Strip wax can remove short and stubborn hairs quickly and effectively, it is a much faster when compared to hot wax. Our strip wax also contains minerals to help soothe and calm the skin, to assist in rapid recovery. As strip wax is so fast, it is more effective on large areas of the body such as legs, arms and back.

  • If strip wax is so fast and effective, why choose sensitive hot wax?
  • If you usually break out after a wax.
  • If you go quite red and spotty after a wax.
  • If you have sensitive skin.
  • If you are prone to skin lift.
  • If you prefer a gentler bikini, Brazilian, face or eyebrow waxing experience.

What hurts more strip wax or hot wax?

Hot wax is good for strong hair in sensitive areas, such as the bikini as the wax only grips the hairs and not the skin underneath. Many of our clients choose Sensitive Hot Wax for bikini or Brazilian waxing. Sensitive Hot Wax is also popular for underarms and areas of the face and eyebrows. It is generally not used for large areas of the body such as legs, arms and back.

Essential Beauty Melbourne Central

At Essential Beauty Essential Beauty Melbourne Central, we specialise in a range beauty treatments and piercing services including:

  • Waxing Our highly trained Beauty Therapists offer the very best in waxing hair removal treatments for men and women.
  • Ear & Body Piercing We are the experts in all forms of body piercing and have a wide range of body jewellery to suit anyone!
  • Brow & Lash Tinting and Lash Lifts Enhance your natural eyebrows and lashes with our range of brow and lash tinting services.
  • Laser & IPL Permanent Hair Reduction Permanently remove unwanted hair with laser & IPL for silky smooth skin all year round.
  • Children’s Ear Piercing Not only are we great with kids, your child will receive a free comfort teddy and bravery certificate with every double operator ear piercing.
  • Spray Tan Maintain a natural looking, sun kissed glow all year round with a spray tan!
  • Facials Experience our range of results driven facial treatments with Dalton Marine Cosmetics Skincare and asap Skincare
  • Microdermabrasion Reveal brighter, smoother and more refined skin instantly with Microdermabrasion and Hydrodermabrasion!

Visit us in salon to chat with our expert Beauty Therapists and Piercing Specialists, or browse our huge range of body jewellery, exclusive Dalton Skincare, asap Skincare, Sterilear Piercing Aftercare, IngroStopper and more!

How to choose the right lawyer has never been easy, lawyers have different specialties where they focus on different types of issues.


First thing you need to do is to determine the scope of your issue to identify the lawyer or law firm specialized in that particular area of the law.  Same as a dentist won’t be the best doctor to operate you from an eye issue, a lawyer specialized in divorces won’t be the best option for a litigation with your employer.


After finding the law firms in Bangkok with the right experience for your matter, there are several other things to consider like, the size of the firm, their price range, their professionalism, the proximity to you and his communication.


What questions to ask a lawyer in Bangkokbefore hiring them?

Something that is supposed to come with the profession, honesty and high ethics are essential in your selection of lawyers in Bangkok, Thailand, you can take advantage of the free consultation many lawyers and law firms in Bangkok offer. You can determine the character of your lawyers through the initial conversation.  Usually they offer an hour or less free for the consultation, be sure to make the right questions to them like:


  • Years practicing. Experienced lawyers will have the right approach to your issue.
  • Experience in the same legal area. Be sure your chosen lawyer is expert on the same legal field of your issue.
  • Success cases.  Gain trust through their success cases.
  • The caseload they will assign to your case. Are they free enough for your case?
  • Pricing structure, essential to avoid surprise on the billing.
  • Malpractice insurance. Things can get nasty, ask for malpractice responsibility.
  • Special skills or certifications. Continuous education will show passion and responsibility in their procession.
  • Who will be assigned to your case. Is your case going to be passed to a junior member or to the person you are directly consulting.
  • How often you will be updated about your case. As much feedback as possible will be the best to have confidence in your lawyer.
  • Client references.


Don’t hesitate to interview several law firms or lawyers until you find the right match in all the aspects, from the right pricing, experience and trust.


What types of lawyers can I find in Bangkok?

In Lawzana you will find a list of highly trustworthy law firms and lawyers that covers all different aspects of of the law:


  • Criminal Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Personal injury Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Workers compensation Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Bankruptcy Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Family Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Immigration Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Estate Planning and Elder Law Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Intellectual Property Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Employment Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Corporate Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Medical Malpractice Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Tax Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Real Estate Lawyers in Bangkok
  • Civil Litigation Lawyers in Bangkok


Review our top list of lawyers in Bangkok, where we curated and verified only the best and trustable law firms.  Read the reviews and ask for a free of charge consultation.

Setting the table to match the meal Most of them can be seen when dining in restaurants. Hotel or formal events and weddings, for example. Generally, table setting is not very popular for family dining. Due to the time spent preparing and a lot of equipment In this article, we're going to talk about how to set up a simple dining table that you can make yourself at home by choosing glasses and plates.

  1. Thai food table setting

    Thai food is a popular food to eat together with family. Therefore, setting a dining table for Thai food is therefore a table setting that is suitable for everyone in the family. Usually Thai food consists of rice. Side dish and soup with every meal Making the Thai table setting consists of plates and bowls. Choosing a Thai food dish should be a large plate. not too small And the selection of the bowl should be a large bowl. Wide and deep considering the number of people eating, and perhaps a small bowl to divide the broth. Every time a Thai food table is set up, what is indispensable is a glass of water. Drinking glasses should be chosen considering convenience. Table size and eating habits Therefore, choose a glass that is stable and strong.

  1. Japanese table setting

    Japan is a country where people like to have a side dish and soup every time they eat. Making the Japanese table setting consist of rice bowls, plates, bowls and soup cups. Choosing plates, bowls and soup cups for Japanese food It is recommended to choose a rice bowl that is lightweight. Handy size, easy to hold Because when eating Japanese food, people tend to hold a bowl of rice to eat. Plates and bowls should be selected according to the size of the food being loaded. For example, the side dish should be flat and shallow. The bowl for the sauce should be small and deep to suit the dip.

  1. European table setting

    European table setting in most restaurants uses multiple pieces of equipment due to different dining cultures. Most European dishes are usually served as courses with appetizers. Main dishes and desserts Make the tableware have many accessories such as spoons. fork and plate to keep enough to use But setting up a dining table for family meals doesn't have to be overkill due to the space at the dining table. For European dining, it is advisable to choose a plate that is large but not too small because European food is a one-dish meal. You can also add an atmosphere to a European dining scene simply by choosing a stemmed glass for drinking water or wine glasses.

The table setting often depends on the type of food we eat and what kind of food we eat. The table setting is different. However, setting the dining table is not only beautiful and organized. It also allows people to eat a lot of appetite as well. selection of dishes Bowls and glasses are indispensable in the dining table setting. For those who are interested in trying to set up a simple dining table by themselves at home, they can subscribe to Ocean Glass to receive news. More discounts can be made easily.

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This week Harry Kane netted 7 times in just 2 games to secure England’s place in the Qatar 2022 World Cup. But what’s the key to his success for the Three Lions?


It’s common knowledge that Kane is a hard-working professional, which is supported by the fact he captains both England and Tottenham sides. There is no doubt he works hard in training, works closely with managers and backroom staff to ensure his tactical input is optimised and no doubt has his nutrition down to a tee. But there’s one more thing that football fans are noticing during his ames that might help to give him the edge over his competition.


During England’s match against Andora this week where Kane scored another hat trick for England, he was wearing socks that did not match all of his other team mates. They were white and seem to be different from the rest of the blue strip.



The socks Harry was wearing were football grip socks. A relatively new piece of kit that helps optimise a players performance easily, simply by wearing them during matches and training. The socks are thicker than the traditional football kit socks to provide padding against football boots. But most importantly, they have several rubber grips along the sole of the socks which provide players with additional support when playing.


Traditional football socks can become quite slippy within football boots and when you’re playing at the highest level, small excessive inconveniences like that can cause dips in performance.


According to a spokesperson from Grippy Sports (a supplier of the socks), the socks reduce risk of injury due to the grip reducing micro movements within a player’s boots, as well and helping the athletes twist and turn faster, jump higher and accelerate quicker.


They have been worn by increasing amounts of players not only in the sport’s top flight leagues, but all the way down to a grassroots level with players of all abilities noticing the difference the socks make.


Football grip socks are worn as normal socks, and then the football kit’s socks must be cut to just above the ankle. The socks are then secured in place and connected by football sock tape.


Elite-level football is all about small margins, and if wearing football grip socks gives Kane a 1% boost to help England succeed at major tournaments, then we’re all in favour… Let’s get some for Gareth… every little helps!!

One of the largest changes for The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2018 has to do with the changes to the child tax credit.  Child tax credits are available for low- and moderate-income families to help offset the costs of children, and for qualifying filers, this can mean significant cost savings when filing your taxes.

We now have a new federal tax plan and one of the biggest benefits to the Trump Tax changes is that the child tax credit has been changed from a non-refundable credit to giving you up to $1400 refundable credit. The child tax credit changesare significant because this is a new opportunity for many Americans to potentially put some hard-earned money back in their pockets. 

There have been changes to both the qualifications and credit amounts for filers, and the intent of this article is to help summarize those changes that are applicable.

When do the new child tax credit changes take effect?


The new child tax credit changes take effect immediately for your 2018 filed returns.  As long as the child was not older than 17 by the end of the filing year, they will qualify as part of the credit.  With the new child tax changes, you can take advantage of the broader eligibility requirements, and the credit amount per child has now doubled!

The child tax changes from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2018 are scheduled to remain in effect until 2025.

How much is the child tax credit?The child tax credit has increased from $1000 to $2000 per child (maximum of 3) in 2018 for filers.  This is a significant increase.  In addition, the qualifications for the child tax credit have broadened, meaning more families can now qualify that previously could not.   There is also a $300 credit for non-child dependents available to help offset the burden of dependents older than the maximum age of 17 for the child tax credit. How much do you get back?


Since you are utilizing a tax credit, you essentially are reducing your tax bill directly for each child.  Comparing this to a deduction where you are lowering your taxable income only, a credit is a much more advantageous position for filers. 

In addition, since the 2018 tax laws changed the child tax credit to be refundable, this means you can get some refund money back depending on your situation.  The total amount you can get back from the child tax credit depends on your specific tax situation, and the amount you get back is capped at 15% your income.

Eligibility requirements for the child tax credit


There are complicated rules associated with eligibility for the child tax credit, but luckily the IRS publishes a ton of information online to help you determine if you qualify.  Some of the basic requirements are that you must be the child’s legal guardian, they must be under the age of 17 during the tax year filed and a legal resident of the United States, and you must be providing them financial assistance and claiming them as a dependent.

There also cannot be multiple claims for the child tax credit on a single individual or child. You may also be able to get the child tax credit with no income.

Claiming a child on taxes that is not yours


You can claim the child tax credit for individuals that are not your direct born children, but you must be related in some fashion.  If you are the child’s legal guardian, such as an Aunt, Uncle, Adopting Parent, Foster Child, Step Child, or sibling.  So long as you are providing financial support for the child and they are a dependent, you are likely eligible to claim the child tax credit.


Form 1040 is the basic tax form everyone who pays taxes must fill out when filing Federal income taxes. Today, there’s just a single version of Form 1040.

Depending on your tax situation, you may need to attach other forms and schedules to your 1040.

Why Do I Need to File Form 1040?

Are you wondering how early you can file your taxes? In early December you’ll be able to start filing your taxes for the year on Form 1040. All tax filers will use the same form. The previous forms, such as 1040EZ and 1040A are no longer valid. These changes were brought in as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), enacted by President Donald Trump in 2017.

Nonresident aliens may use Form 1040NR, however.

How to Fill Out Form 1040?

Form 1040 is made up of two pages. You’ll supply your personal details on page one. These will include your name, your filing status, and your Social Security Number (SSN). You’ll need to add the same information for your spouse if married and filing jointly.

Anyone claiming dependents must also add the personal information of these dependents. Since the TCJA, all dependents must have their own SSNs. If claiming the child tax credit or another credit for dependents, you’ll need to tick a box next to the space for your dependents’ information.

There’s also a box you need to tick that tells the IRS whether you have health insurance, as well as any healthcare exemptions for the tax year.

You’ll also need to list your occupation and sign the first page.

Listing Your Income

Now we move onto the second page. Lines one to seven are where you’ll tell the IRS about your income for the tax year. You should already have your W-2 form if you were a salaried employee. The information supplied via your W-2 form will be included on Form 1040.

You should also include any other sources of income, such as any interest income, annuities, dividends, and Social Security benefits. You can find a full list of the different sources of income you should include via the guidance on the IRS website.

Using the different sources of income, you have, you’ll then calculate them and add the total figure for your adjusted gross income. This should be included on line seven.

How to Calculate Your Adjusted Gross Income

So how do you adjust your income?

These are known in tax filing as types of above-the-line deductions. They get this name because these deductions are removed from your total income. The adjusted gross income figure is how the Federal government determines how much tax you pay. Tax is based on this figure only.

To take these deductions, you’ll need to include different forms together with Form 1040. The previous version of Form 1040 included 15 lines that allowed you to make these deductions. These lines are now spread through Schedules 1 to 6. So, you only need to include these schedules if you’re claiming specific deductions.

For example, Schedule 4 and Form SE is only used if you’re claiming deductions on the self-employment tax.

Take note that deductions available in previous years have now been removed. For example, you can no longer claim deductions for college tuition and moving fees.

Considering Taxes and Credits

Now that you’ve worked out your adjusted gross income, it’s time to work out the different tax credits you’re able to claim.

Either you’ll claim the standard deduction on line eight or you’ll itemize your deductions. For qualified business income deductions, you’ll need to use line 9. On lines 10 to 15, you can enter the different amounts for tax credits.

For example, line 12a will be where you enter the amount for the child tax credit. Any withheld Federal income taxes can be entered on line 14.

Tax Refunds

The following section will consider your tax refund if you’re eligible for one.

For this section, look at line 18 and line 15. If the amount on line 18 is larger than the amount on line 15, this means you’re able to claim a refund.

Just take away the amount from line 15 from that on line 18 and enter the amount on line 19. That’s how much the Federal government owes you.

Through the rest of the refund section, if you’re eligible for one, you’ll need to enter your bank details. You may also attach Form 8888 if you wish to get your refund in the form of savings bonds. It’s also possible to claim your refund as a paper check.

How Much Do I Owe to the Federal Government?

If you’re not eligible for a refund and you owe money to the Federal government, you’ll need to pay the IRS. This is what appears at the end of the second page of Form 1040. It’s called Amount You Owe. The amount you need to pay should be entered on line 22.

If you owe any penalties, include these on line 23. Form 1040 includes instructions for underpayment penalties.

How to File Form 1040

This is the most basic form used for filing your income taxes via the IRS. It doesn’t matter what situation you’re in because Form 1040 is the base form, so every taxpayer must submit one to the IRS at the start of 2022.

There are clear instructions on how to fill out Form 1040. The IRS includes lots of guidance on the different sections.

However, what happens if you have a more complex tax situation?

In this situation, you may need to consult a professional tax preparer to help you out. They’ll be able to go through the various parts of your income. This is especially the case if you have multiple sources of income.

Finally, if you want to make filing your 1040 easy, you should consider using some online tax preparation software. You’ll be able to follow some step-by-step instructions and the software will plug all the numbers into the right places.

Many of these software options also allow you to submit your tax return through them, thus taking out all the stress and when you file your taxes in 2022.

Pruning bonsai is an important part of maintaining your tree. It helps to keep the shape, size and health in check for both you and your tree.

There are many ways to prune a bonsai but we will focus on the easiest way that gives you good results with little effort. Pruning should be done as often as necessary so it becomes second nature!

If you find yourself struggling with overgrown trees or want some advice on how frequently to prune a bonsai, we answer your questions here.

Bonsais require regular maintenance including pruning which can help keep them healthy and beautiful.

Let’s go through:

  • how to prune a bonsai tree
  • what tools are needed to do this properly bonsai pruning shears vs bonsai pruning kits),
  • how much time it usually takes
  • discussions on pruning specific types of bonsai trees
 How to prune a bonsai tree?

Pruning is a must-do routine maintenance procedure of keeping your bonsai in tiptop shape.

It can be an enjoyable and relaxing activity, so don’t think you have to rush it or worry that it will be hard work!

1.) The primary purpose of pruning is to remove dead leaves which can affect the growth of new ones.

2.) The secondary purpose is to cut away part of the tree or branch that may be growing too large for its allotted space. It can also be used to create new growth in a bonsai if you know what you’re doing!

While I am sure there are many methods out there, this post will focus on the easiest way to do it and in my opinion get the best results.

Many people have been taught to use pruning scissors but I don’t think this is the right way!

They can be fiddly and it can be hard to cut precisely, which can lead to an unbalanced tree in a few years because you didn’t allow enough room for new growth.

For me, using a small sharp knife is the best way to prune a bonsai. This lets you cut more precisely and quickly, leaving less room for error.

How often do you need to prune?

For the majority of species, from spring to autumn would be ideal but seasonal variations in temperature will tell you when it’s time!

It’s important not to prune your bonsai too much or they will lose their shape. You should be able to see that the tree is growing well without having to prune every month!

Do different types of bonsai trees require different pruning?

The majority of conifers will have a similar pruning routine. There are some exceptions. Japanese White Pine tends to lean if it grows too large. Extra care may be required while pruning to correct this.

Sometimes though, a tree begins to grow unevenly so you need to remove more wood from the top or bottom. This is a common issue with Cherry and Juniper.

How to cut a branch?

Cut the trunk or branch at a sharp angle of around 45 degrees , ensuring you leave enough wood to be able to seal it later on.

Avoid cutting too close to the main trunk or it will likely die off completely, ruining your tree!

I tend not to cut off more than one layer of branches. If it is too long then cut a section from the bottom and leave the rest.

How much time does pruning a bonsai take?.

A complete bonsai pruning

Pruning can be done in a few minutes but it’s an important part of your maintenance schedule so this time will add up!

I would recommend spending around 15 to 20 minutes each month on this routine task.

A bit like washing the car;  it shouldn’t take long and you’ll feel better afterward.

A complete bonsai pruning for a small tree might take around 15 minutes. Taking off all the old leaves on a large tree can be done in less than 10 minutes!

But what if you don’t have that much time?

Try limiting yourself to removing just the biggest and oldest leaves. Make sure they are dry too, because wet ones may fall apart when you try to remove them.

How to remove the old leaves from a bonsai tree?

Chop away at the base of the leaf with your knife until it falls completely off.   Never pull or tug as this can damage the branch!

Make sure that you don’t accidentally cut into any branches while doing this, although sometimes an extra hand is useful if it’s a big leaf.

What to do with the clippings?

Once you are done, pick up all the bits and pieces left over and put them in a plastic bag for future use!

These can be used as starter fertiliser or even thrown into your compost bin. Anything that is still usable will be broken down by bacteria. You can even throw them on your soil to speed this process up!

If it’s too late in the year and you are struggling for time, just bag them up and leave them in the compost bin until next season.    They will be a welcome treat for your plants when you use them then!

How much should I prune?

In general, you should only be pruning around 5% of your tree every time.

This will allow for plenty of new growth and keep it healthy at the same time!

So if your tree is two years old then this means that after four years of pruning, everything above ground will have been removed.

However, pruning heavily depends on the species. For example, a fast growing tree like Japanese Black Pine would benefit from having 70% of its branches pruned away. Slow growers like Cryptomeria require very little pruning.

What if you cut your tree leaving a wound?How to seal wounds?  

After cutting your branch at an angle (around 45 degrees) be sure to seal it! This is one of the most important steps of the pruning process.

If you do not seal your cuts they will likely suffer from infection and decay which could kill off the branch or even the entire tree!

There are many different materials used for sealing including:

Liquid Wax – Best used for small cuts, it is very viscous so tends to ooze out. Dip a cotton bud or brush into your can of wax and rub it over the cut.

Pine Tar – This is commonly used for hard wood pruning (e.g many kinds of conifer) and will seal off your cuts very well.

Tree Gum – If you cannot get any Pine Tar, then tree gum is the next best choice.

I personally use a mixture of Pine Tar and tree gum because they work perfectly together, but this is more expensive than just using straight pine tar.

Also make sure you get the kind that contains turpentine as it will kill off any fungus on your cuts!

Tree Gum should be used for soft wood pruning (e.g bonsai with deciduous leaves) as it is less viscous and more malleable.

I would recommend using a combination of these gums, dabbing them on one by one to make sure that none of your cuts are left without protection!

Pruning bonsai root

This is one of the least understood aspects of bonsai. But it really should be first nature for every experienced grower to know how to prune their trees roots!

And if you don’t then I certainly think it’s worth learning about now, especially as many species like Japanese Maples tend to grow new roots from the base of the old ones.

What do I do with old roots?

Firstly, make sure that they are not healthy or alive!

If they have any green on them then you should leave them alone and prune from a higher point down.

Healthy trees will usually still be producing root growth so this may be your chance to produce a more interesting nebari (surface roots).

How do I know where to cut?  

The easiest way is simply to count the number of visible rings on the root. The ones closest to the trunk will need pruning as these are older and compete with new growth.

This means that they can sometimes pull water away from them or even prevent them from growing through the soil.

If you have Japanese Maple, then this method won’t work. They seem to produce new roots anywhere along their length – such is the way with Maples!

But if you have deciduous bonsai like a Chinese Elm or Beech then it’s still worth using this technique. It will give you a chance to create a wonderful jin (branch stub) on the trunk.

Usually, this happens naturally as your tree gets bigger – but don’t leave it too late!

Be sure to prune your roots when they’re around 3-4 years old and natural jins should already be forming all over the trunk in a youthful bonsai.

However, if you have a tree that does not yet have jins (or even many roots!) then they will just need pruning from the bottom up to create them!

Prune until you see green, but be careful not to cut too close to the trunk as this can lead to problems with decay and bacteria.

If you’re not sure what to do then just remember that in most cases your tree roots will need pruning.

This is done at or below the point where they emerge from the pot (if they don’t, then this is a sign of over-pottedting and too much soil).

Dead roots on your bonsai tree

Yes it happens – and yes it can kill your tree! But it isn’t always the case and certainly not in young bonsai.

The best way to tell whether roots are dead or alive is by cutting into the base of them. If they look brown, crumbly and rotten then you can be sure that they’re dead.

However, if your roots are still white (and in most cases they should be) then you will need to prune them carefully from below. Roots should be routinely pruned every year, just like branches!

As a rule of thumb try not to leave more than four or five visible rings on your roots.

If you’re not sure where to prune them then just remember that if you can’t see any green at the base of your tree roots, then they will need pruning from below.

It’s much easier than doing it from above and is the best way to avoid rotting or damaging new growth!

Pruning bonsai for beginners

Let’s take a look at bonsai pruning for beginners.

I know it sounds quite daunting but believe me – once you’ve pruned your first tree then it will all become clear and even exciting!

You may find that as you progress through the ranks of enthusiast, intermediate and finally expert bonsai gardener that you’ll need to master a whole new range of pruning styles for advanced bonsai.

I know that there’s nothing quite like the first time you cut your trees roots or branches. And not just because it is one of the most important parts of caring for your tree – but because there’s something quite thrilling about seeing it take shape and grow to your own specifications.

And, the best part of pruning bonsai is that you’ll get to do it every year!

Pruning bonsai ficus

This is a tricky one as most bonsai growers want to avoid excessive pruning of ficus, but sometimes it’s just the best thing you can do.

Ficus are extremely sensitive to their environment and often need a lot of TLC – so don’t be afraid to prune them when they’re young!

I have seen some bonsai growers that specialise in ficus, and they all seem to have slightly different ways of pruning them. The best thing is to watch them work or even ask for advice!

Some thrive on a very severe pruning regime – one that would leave you quivering in your boots!

But surely no harm is done? I often see bonsai growers pruning back ficus branches to just a single or two live buds.  I’m not sure if they’ll die, but surely this can’t be good for them?

Pruning a ginkgo bonsai

Ginkgo bonsai are well known for their wonderful autumn colour, but they’re also equally tricky to care for.

They seem to be at their best once completely covered in leaves, so it’s often difficult to prune them if you’ve left it too long – because once the leaves start falling there’s nothing left!

However, if you’re still after a showy bonsai, then it’s worth letting your Ginko grow as big as possible – so that there’s lots of leaves on the branches.

So let them reach their full size and then prune back hard!

Leave just a few short branches with small buds on them, or even no more than a single bud.

This will create a new flush of leaves and let the Ginko keep growing. It’s important to remember that you’ll also need to protect your bonsai from insects, mites and other pests with chemical sprays and insecticides.

Ginkgo pruning is no walk in the park! It takes lots of practice to get the balance right and you’ll be left with lots of stubs! So bear in mind that your pruning may not always work out as planned – but you’ll learn along the way.

Pruning dawn redwood bonsai

Dawn redwood bonsai are more like a practice in patience than the perfect bonsai. They have lovely leaves and need to be pruned carefully  to keep them looking good as their trunks grow very slowly!

Instead of chopping back fully, it’s often better to just trim across the tips of new growth to create a “cascade” effect.

This helps to keep your bonsai looking good for longer and it’s also an ideal way of encouraging strong growth at the tip of branches instead of just letting them grow all over the place!

In short, try trimming across the tips so that they don’t bulk up too much. It will give you a neat and tidy bonsai that will grow very quickly in just one or two seasons.

Many people seem to leave them for much longer than they should before pruning dawn redwood bonsai, so remember this advice: try not to let your leaves get too big.

If you’ve left it a bit late then don’t be afraid to prune your bonsai down hard- sometimes it’s the things you learn from mistakes like these that are the most valuable.

Pruning Japanese maple bonsai

Japanese maples are a classic choice for bonsai but they naturally grow into beautiful shapely trees, so if you want to turn them into a bonsai then you’ll need to prune them back really hard.

You can’t just leave them alone for a few years and expect a perfect looking bonsai!

They’re sometimes difficult to grow indoors, but it’s important not to be afraid of extreme pruning. If you want your Japanese maple to look good and have that high quality  Bonsai look, then get snapping with your pruning shears.

Cut the suckers off in summer and chop back new growth when needed.

You’ll be left with tiny stubs that don’t always seem to grow back – but this is normal!

I have one Japanese maple bonsai that grows into a perfect tree shape each summer, but only after hard pruning.

I have to bravely cut my way through lots of new growth each year and it takes quite a long time to build up the bonsai – but it’s worth the work.

So if you’re ready for some serious pruning then go for Japanese maples every time!

Pruning pomegranate bonsai

Pomegranate bonsai are beautiful trees that bloom in the spring with big white flowers. They’re very decorative and look great in a living room, but they can be temperamental to grow indoors and need regular pruning if you want them to look good!

The trick is not to let them grow too much. Try trimming off leaves regularly and just let them grow at the tips of branches. This will encourage lots of new growth, but keep the overall shape looking good.

Pomegranates are quite challenging to grow indoors, but they’re also fun to prune! You can chop back almost all of their thick branches if you’re careful with your cuts – try to avoid damaging the trunk to keep your pruning going smoothly.

The branches can be awkward to sort out, but once you’ve got to grips with this bonsai then it’s worth all of the hard work! Some people even spray paint their pomegranate bonsai for added effect – I’d rather not risk that one though.

Bonsai pruning kit

Yes, you can buy a bonsai pruning kit!   Some of them do actually have more than one tool and look pretty good.

In fact the best ones feature a branch snipper (which is essential) plus some scissors, loppers and other miscellaneous tools that together with your hands will help you to tackle any job.

Now, if you are looking for the best product on the market then I recommend that you check out this one: Bonsai Pruning Kit

It is made by a very experienced bonsai grower and he has put all his experience into making sure that this product is right up there with the best of them.

If you have any doubts about it, then you may like to read some of the reviews for this product. I would say that these are in their hundreds!

What I have noticed is that most who review this product seem to give it top marks and they also say a lot about how effective it is and what good value for money it is.

Bonsai pruning shears  

Of course, you don’t have to spend a lot of money on a bonsai pruning kit just for some great tools.

If you feel that you only need a set of really good shears then surely these are fine?

It’s worth carrying them in your car or keeping them near the tree if it is difficult to carry tools around.

Bonsai pruning shears are for the most part really useful for cutting into new growth to remove leaves and small branches that you can’t get at with your hands alone.

Large thicker bonsai trees will also require trimming by using a bonsai pruning saw.

Best brand of bonsai pruning shears?

For the most part you will find that the best shears are made in Japan.

But as long as they’re sharp and strong enough then I don’t think that there’s anything wrong with them being made here or anywhere else in the world for that matter!

The truth is, all of the bonsai pruning tools need to be strong, sharp and rust free if you’re to get the best out of them. I don’t see any point in picking up cheap tools because they will just end up damaging your bonsai tree or even worse – injuring yourself!

That’s why I recommend that you spend a little bit more on good quality shears than settle for cheap ones (you may still have to spend around $30-$40 though).

If you’re looking for a really good brand then I can advise that Titan tools in Italy make some of the best pruning shears on the market. But there are others too such as Felco, Knipex and Fiskars which are also well respected. My advice is to get a worthy shear that you can rely on.

Don’t settle for the cheapest tools and don’t go overboard either – it’s a tough balance!

If you do end up buying just some high quality pruning shears (or perhaps something more) then they may last you your whole life time.

Just remember; if you don’t use the best tools for the job, then you will be doing your bonsai pruning kit no justice at all.


When pruning bonsai, it is important to keep in mind that the art of bonsai requires maintaining a balance between nature and culture.

Prune too much or too little and you will be left with an unbalanced tree which can lead to unhealthy growth patterns.

There are many types of trees that make great subjects for bonsai but different styles require slightly different techniques.

For example, when trimming roots on a cascading style plant like ficus microcarpa ‘pindo’, it’s best not to remove more than one-third of its root mass at any time because this type of tree needs support from the soil as well as plenty of water so don’t go crazy!

The guide above extensively  covers the art of pruning bonsai. We hope these tips helped

Before you go, read our care for bonsai post here. We give you more tips there.

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