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In the first controlled clinical trial of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a newly discovered form of Vitamin B3, researchers have shown that the compound is safe for humans and increases levels of a cell metabolite that is critical for cellular energy production and protection against stress and DNA damage.Nootropics Powder

Studies in mice have shown that boosting the levels of this cell metabolite—known as NAD+—can produce multiple health benefits, including resistance to weight gain, improved control of blood sugar and cholesterol, reduced nerve damage, and longer lifespan. Levels of NAD+ diminish with age, and it has been suggested that loss of this metabolite may play a role in age-related health decline.

These findings in animal studies have spurred people to take commercially available NR supplements designed to boost NAD+. However, these over-the-counter supplements have not undergone clinical trials to see if they work in people.

The new research, reported Oct. 10 in the journal Nature Communications, was led by Charles Brenner, PhD, professor and Roy J. Carver Chair of Biochemistry at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine in collaboration with colleagues at Queens University Belfast and ChromaDex Corp. (NASDAQ: CDXC), which supplied the NR used in the trial. Brenner is a consultant for ChromaDex. He also is co-founder and Chief Scientific Adviser of ProHealthspan, which sells NR supplements under the trade name Tru NIAGEN®.

The human trial involved six men and six women, all healthy. Each participant received single oral doses of 100 mg, 300 mg, or 1,000 mg of NR in a different sequence with a seven-day gap between doses. After each dose, blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed by Brenner’s lab to measure various NAD+ metabolites in a process called metabolomics. The trial showed that the NR vitamin increased NAD+ metabolism by amounts directly related to the dose, and there were no serious side effects with any of the doses.

“This trial shows that oral NR safely boosts human NAD+ metabolism,” Brenner says. “We are excited because everything we are learning from animal systems indicates that the effectiveness of NR depends on preserving and/or boosting NAD+ and related compounds in the face of metabolic stresses. Because the levels of supplementation in mice that produce beneficial effects are achievable in people, it appears than health benefits of NR will be translatable to humans safely.”

The next step will be to study the effect of longer duration NR supplementation on NAD+ metabolism in healthy adults, but Brenner also has plans to test the effects of NR in people with diseases and health conditions, including elevated cholesterol, obesity and diabetes, and people at risk for chemotherapeutic peripheral neuropathy.
As one of the Racetam categorical members of nootropics, Nefiracetam helps to improve cognitive abilities in the brain. It works in a potent manner and can help users find a quick result. Nefiracetam has almost the same chemical structure to another compound called Aniracetam.
However, it has a slightly unique mechanism of action to Aniracetam. It improves GABA and Acetylcholine, which remain Neurotransmitters generated in the brain. It also bolsters the ability to focus, memorizing and learning.Nefiracetam
Apart from displaying nootropic advantages, Nefiracetam powder provides neuroprotective features in the long-term. It crosses the brain blood barrier quickly and remains a fat soluble substance. It can easily get into the central nervous system when used. For this reason, the supplement has powerful brain penetration value than several products.
Apart from being quick in its action, the powder has an amazing blood-brain barrier penetration. This implies that blood flowing in the brain will definitely increase drastically. To boost the mental strength of the brain, the supplement interacts with neurons.
This will help to enhance the mental formation and processing of memories to a great level. The supplement is a great source of oxygen and glucose to the neurons effectively. Studies have shown that this supplement remains the only nootropic to bolster the choline rate absorption through the neurons.
Experts mention that the supplement is related to vitamin B and helps to increase acetylcholine neurotransmitter in your brain. It helps in encoding, consolidation and retrieval of memory procedures.With acetylcholine, your brain will work like a plastic to increase focus, learning and concentration capabilities. With Nefiracetam, the activity of acetylcholine is greatly increased.

Studies have shown that Nefiracetam remains one of the most innovative racetams. This supplement has a great impact on your brain activities and highly potent. It is considered to be a second phase racetam due to its wide ranging uses.
This powder is able to treat dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Nootropics remain the general or technical phrase for smart drugs. These are a group of healthy supplements that remains great in bolstering cognitive ability, memory, intelligence and general brain function.
It is really not addictive, non-toxic, improves verbal memory and has few side-effects. There are fewer studies performed on the impacts and clinical trials of the supplement. It is highly active than piracetam and other nootropics.
The supplement has a great impact on cognitive function, alertness, and improves memory. Unlike aniracetam, oxiracetam or piracetam, the supplemen
t also has a great positive impact on your mood. It acts as an antidepressant that can help lower your stress. The AMPA receptors in the brain are highly
stimulated after using the supplement. Ampakines are tough substances that affect the brain.

These substances are known to boost learning ability, attention span, gene
ral cognitive and alertness functions. Nefiracetam among racetams is highly well-known with students. Life extension enthusiasts, people recovering from alcoholism, dementia, and Alzheimer’s are able to be treated with the help of this supplement.

It is a good idea to use the supplement with a choline such as a bitartrate. Nefiracetam powder can be successfully used with other racetams such as L-Tyrosine, GABA, and L-Phenylalanine without side-effects.
Peganum harmala L. is a multipurpose medicinal plant increasingly used for psychoactive recreational purposes (Ayahuasca analog). Harmaline, harmine, harmalol, harmol and tetrahydroharmine were identified and quantified as the main beta-carboline alkaloids in P. harmala extracts. Seeds and roots contained the highest levels of alkaloids with low levels in stems and leaves, and absence in flowers. Harmine and harmaline accumulated in dry seeds at 4.3% and 5.6% (w/w), respectively, harmalol at 0.6%, and tetrahydroharmine at 0.1% (w/w). Roots contained harmine and harmol with 2.0% and 1.4% (w/w), respectively. beta carboline
Seed extracts were potent reversible and competitive inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) with an IC(50) of 27 microg/l whereas root extracts strongly inhibited MAO-A with an IC(50) of 159 microg/l. In contrast, they were poor inhibitors of MAO-B. Inhibition of MAO-A by seed extracts was quantitatively attributed to harmaline and harmine whereas inhibition by root extracts came from harmine with no additional interferences. Stems and leaves extracts were poor inhibitors of MAO. The potent inhibition of MAO-A by seed and root extracts of P. harmala containing beta-carbolines should contribute to the psychopharmacological and toxicological effects of this plant and could be the basis for its purported antidepressant actions.
These days, if you’re not seeking an edge in everything that you do, you’re probably falling behind.With increased competition and advances in technology coming at a breakneck pace, you can either adapt or wind up in the dust.oxiracetam buy

Thankfully, nootropic drugs like oxiracetam may be able to provide the boost you need to perform at your highest level. Today, we’ll take a closer look at everything there is to know about this potential life-changing nootropic.Oxiracetam is a drug that belongs to the racetam class of compounds. Like other racetams, it belongs to the ampakine family of nootropics, which affect AMPA receptors in your brain. These receptors regulate synaptic transmission in the brain, allowing neuroreceptors to function at a higher level.

Oxiracetam is the third racetam drug that was developed, and it was first synthesized in 1978 as a chemical derivative of piracetam. Like piracetam, oxiracetam has a pyrrolidone nucleus. However, oxiracetam also adds a hydroxyl group, which may explain why it’s considered to be the most useful nootropic of the racetam family.

While many nootropics primarily support concentration and focus, oxiracetam more closely supports learning and memory retention and recall. A favorite of the nootropic community for several decades, this drug is available over-the-counter in the United States and most other parts of the world.Most of the benefits of oxiracetam are related to its function as an acetylcholine (ACh) booster. Heightened levels of ACh lead to an improvement in short-term and long-term memory, and users also report that it cuts through ‘brain fog,’ allowing them to concentrate to a much higher level regardless of the task at hand.

Oxiracetam also increases the number of calcium ions in brain cells by providing more binding sites for glutamate to bind to. Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the brain. With regular oxiracetam use, the electrical currents inside the brain are increased, which can increase brain plasticity.

This powerful nootropic can also increase energy function in the brain, as it provides support for molecules that build cell membranes inside the brain, such as phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

While oxiracetam is a mild stimulant, it’s devoid of the side effects that are commonly associated with other stimulants. If you’ve had difficulty taking other stimulants in the past because of the side effects associated with them, oxiracetam may be a great choice for you.

While it’s been adopted by the nootropic community as a powerful brain booster, the most promising studies related to this drug show that it may be able to improve brain function and memory in patients who are dealing with degenerative brain diseases such as dementia.

While there’s a lack of human studies on the drug, studies in rats have shown incredibly promising results with regard to oxiracetam as a treatment for dementia, Alzheimer’s, and Central Nervous System diseases. In one such study, oxiracetam had a significant effect on the model group’s ability to alleviate spatial learning and memory impairments.

Several other studies have produced similar results, suggesting there may be a definitive link between oxiracetam and its ability to stave off the effects of dementia.Beyond brain diseases, oxiracetam appears also to be very promising as a treatment after a traumatic brain injury (TBI.)Those who are lucky enough to survive a traumatic brain injury are often faced with severe cognitive decline, as well as effects to their motor skills and personality.
Lycored Launches Lycopene Lycopedia Lycored, an international wellness company at the forefront of ingredient and nutrition supplements, has launched its Lycopedia, an interactive educational hub that tells the narrative journey of lycopene and its effect on the body during different stages of life. By creating the Lycopedia, Lycored hopes it will act as a resource that showcases the health benefits of lycopene, the red-hued tomato-derived carotenoid used in food and beverage and oral supplementation.Lycopene powder From early life, younger adult, midlife adult and older adult, the Lycopedia guides visitors through an interactive journey on lycopene, expanding on the various benefits this carotenoid provides to the body during each phase of life. Health concerns covered throughout the timeline include preeclampsia, lung health, skin health, fertility, cardiovascular health, vision health, osteoporosis and prostate health. "We have focused a large part of more than 50 clinical studies on exploring Lycopene's different beneficial roles in our wellness at every stage of life, which resulted in us taking our Lycored Nutrient Complex range for specific indications mainstream, yet we are only scratching the surface on what our hero carotenoid is capable of for our wellbeing," said Rony Patishi-Chillim, president and CEO at Lycored. "With further research we have been able to unearth a multitude of health benefits and, as a result, we want to also make consumers and our industry aware of the significance of lycopene; not just for wellness benefits, but as a lifelong ally." The launch of the Lycopedia showcases both the depth of research and undeniable commitment Lycored has to the wellbeing and education of creating wellness from within. Through the belief that nature holds a wealth of knowledge just waiting to be unearthed, Lycored plans to continue to introduce education tools to their community including a link to its Lycopedia on their un-branded consumer facing website, and via wide ranging partnerships including its brand ambassador network.
Men who want to reduce their risk of developing prostate cancer by altering their diet should eat tomatoes or tomato products rather than rely on lycopene supplements, suggest researchers from Ohio State University, Columbus. 502-65-8

Consumption of lycopene, an antioxidant that gives tomatoes their red colour, has been associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer in epidemiological studies. However, the new study, conducted in rats, indicates that other components found in tomatoes may also be associated.

The researchers assigned 194 male rats with prostate cancer to diets containing whole tomato powder or pure lycopene, or to a control diet. After four weeks, the rats were further divided into two groups, one with unlimited access and one with restricted access to food.

The researchers found that rats fed a diet that included whole tomato products survived longer than rats in the other groups (their risk of prostate cancer death was 26 per cent lower). Animals in the tomato-fed, energy-restricted group fared even better, showing a 32 per cent drop in risk. No benefit from lycopene alone was seen in either the energy-restricted or unrestricted groups.

“Our observations support the concept that tomato products contain components in addition to lycopene that may inhibit prostate carcinogenesis,” the researchers say. They add that many men are consuming lycopene-containing supplements in the hope that they may prevent prostate cancer or enhance the treatment of their prostate cancer. “We suggest that a focus on interventions with whole tomato products and energy balance should be a priority while clinical studies simultaneously investigate the risks and benefits of lycopene supplementation.”

The study, which lasted 14 months, is published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2003;95:1578).

The authors of an accompanying editorial (ibid, p1563), Dr Peter Gann, Northwestern University, Chicago, and Dr Frederick Khachik, University of Maryland, point out that plant compounds evolved as sets of interacting compounds. This complexity limits the usefulness of seeking to identify single protective compounds.
Antioxidant Ability and Stability Studies of 3-O-Ethyl Ascorbic Acid

3-O-Ethyl-L-Ascorbic Acid, or Ethyl Ascorbic Acid is a molecule produced by modifying Ascorbic Acid, commonly known as Vitamin C. This modification is done to increase the molecule’s stability and enhance its transport through skin, as pure Vitamin C is easily degraded. In the body, the modifying group is removed and Vitamin C is restored in its natural form. Thus, Ethyl Ascorbic Acid retains the benefits of Vitamin C, such as antioxidant activity. Furthermore, it is even more potent in reducing skin darkening after UV exposure. It even has some additional effects, not observed in pure Ascorbic Acid, such as promoting nerve cell growth or reducing chemotherapy damage. Finally, the slower release also ensures that no toxic effects are observed when using this Vitamin C derivative.3-O-Ethyl-L-Ascorbic Acid

3- O -ethyl ascorbic acid may be a good whitening ingredient in cosmetics. However, before it can be successfully used in cosmetics, its biofunctionality and stability need to be comprehensively investigated. The reduction and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability of this compound were analyzed to assess its antioxidant potential. In addition, the tyrosinase inhibitory ability was analyzed to show the whitening capacity of 3- O -ethyl ascorbic acid. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal conditions for the ascorbic acid derivative in cosmetics. Based on the DPPH radical scavenging ability results, the half-inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value of 3- O -ethyl ascorbic acid was 0.032 g/L. It also showed a good reducing ability at 1.5 g/L concentration. Based on the tyrosinase inhibition analysis, the IC 50 value was 7.5 g/L. The opti
Beneficial effects of chrysin on the reproductive system of adult male rats

Chrysin treated male albino rats had significantly higher sperm count, fertility rate and litter size when they were permitted to mate with proven proestrous female rats[26]. These promoting effects of Chrysin was confirmed by Ciftci et al.[27]report in which testis antioxidant enzyme levels such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px along with GSH were significantly improved following Chrysin administration. Higher sperm count and motility along with lower abnormality percentage were also recorded in their study. ...
... Higher sperm count and motility along with lower abnormality percentage were also recorded in their study. Beside antioxidant effect, both in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed Chrysin potential for enhancing testosterone level and subsequently male sex drive[23,27]. According to the broad range of pharmacological activities of Chrysin and considering the fact that information on feeding this flavonoid to birds is lacking in literature. ...
... In the light of obtained results, Chrysin successfully improved total and forward motility, plasma membrane functionality and integrity, semen concentration and MDA level, sperm fatty acid composition, blood testosterone as well as fertility and hatchability rates. These results were in concert with previous studies in which oral administration of Chrysin to male rats significantly enhanced sperm total motility and count, blood testosterone level[27]as well as fertility and litter size in their partners. An appropriate level of dietary n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio along with reduced MDA level (by feeding an antioxidant) resulted in increase of sperm forward motility in boar.
Chrysin (on the left) and harman (right) are organic compounds with distinctly different structures, but both are found in the passionflower species Passiflora caerulea and P. incarnata.Sesamol powder

Chrysin, also called 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, was first isolated from the wood of pine trees (Pinus spp.) in 1949 by Gösta Linstedt at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Stockholm). Harman (or harmane), a pyridoindole derivative, was discovered much earlier (1861) in the bark of P. incarnata and other trees by German researcher R. Rieth.

What do chrysin and harman have in common besides occurrence in trees, specifically P. incarnata? More than 500 passionflower species have been used as traditional folk remedies for anxiety and other medical conditions almost everywhere that they grow on Earth. For at least 20 years, drug researchers have sought to elucidate mechanisms by which passionflower biochemicals provide relief.

In a key 2001 study, P. incarnata extract was compared with oxazepam, an early benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, for efficacy against generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Shaheen Akhondzadeh and colleagues at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the Institute of Medicinal Plants (both in Tehran, Iran) treated 36 patients diagnosed with GAD with P. incarnata extract, oxazepam, or placebo in a 4-week trial.

The extract and the drug gave equally positive results. Oxazepam acted more rapidly, but it also impaired the subjects’ job performance whereas the extract did not. In the time since this report was issued, however, there is no record of US Food and Drug Administration filings for chrysin, harman, or passionflower extracts.

This discussion of anxiety remedies reminds us that today is the beginning of Mental Health Awareness Week.

The oxalate salts and free bases of fentanyl and N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl]-N-(1-phenyl-4-pyrazolyl)propanamide, a new lead compound for long-acting analgesia, have been characterized by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the hydrochloride of N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl]-N-(1-phenyl-4-pyrazolyl)propanamide monohydrate has been determined. N-Phenyl-N-(4-piperidinyl)propanamide HCL
Two centrosymmetrically related cations, joined through C(phenyl)-H em leader pi contacts, encapsulate a large void that contains pairs of anions and bridged water molecules into a zero-dimensional (0D) supramolecular motif. The cations are linked to this framework via N(+)H em leader Cl(-) contacts. GIAO/B3LYP calculations have been carried out to compare the experimental (13)C chemical shifts with the absolute shieldings thus calculated. The protonation of both molecules takes place on the piperidine ring (axial protonation), as has been verified both in the solid state (X-ray) and in solution (NMR).
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